Risk Factors

There are congenital heart and pulmonary vessel anomalies that may predispose to the development of high altitude pulmonary hypertension. The following conditions have been identified as risk factors for high altitude pulmonary edema and congestive right heart failure of high altitude.

High altitude pulmonary edema:

  • Patent foramen ovale (Levine et al., 1991)
  • Atresia or hypoplasia of the right or left pulmonary artery (Fiorenzano et al., 1994, Hackett et al., 1980)
  • Thromboembolic pulmonary vessel disease (Nakagawa et al., 1993)
  • Appetite suppressant drug therapy with fenfluramine or dexfenfluramine (Naeije et al., 1996)
  • Pulmonary hypertension in acclimatized newcomers and long-term high-altitude residents (Hultgren, 1997b)
  • Congenital and valvular heart diseases (possible)

Any pulmonary disease