Prostanoids

Aguilar, R. V. and H. W. Farber. Epoprostenol (prostacyclin) therapy in HIV-associated pulmonary hypertension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 162: 1846-50., 2000

Almagro, P., J. Julia, M. Sanjaume, et al. Pulmonary Capillary Hemangiomatosis Associated with Primary Pulmonary Hypertension: Report of 2 New Cases and Review of 35 Cases from the Literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 81: 417-24., 2002

Badesch, D. B., V. F. Tapson, M. D. McGoon, et al. Continuous intravenous epoprostenol for pulmonary hypertension due to the scleroderma spectrum of disease. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 132: 425-34, 2000

Barst, R. J., M. McGoon, V. McLaughlin, et al. Beraprost therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol 41: 2119-25, 2003

Barst, R. J., L. J. Rubin, W. A. Long, et al. A comparison of continuous intravenous epoprostenol (prostacyclin) with conventional therapy for primary pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med 334: 296-301, 1996

Barst, R. J., L. J. Rubin, M. D. McGoon, et al. Survival in primary pulmonary hypertension with long-term continuous intravenous prostacyclin. Ann Intern Med 121: 409-15, 1994

Bergstrom, S. and J. Sjovall. The isolation of prostaglandin. Acta Chem Scand 11: 1086-7, 1957

Bresser, P., P. F. Fedullo, W. R. Auger, et al. Continuous intravenous epoprostenol for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Eur Respir J 23: 595-600, 2004

Christman, B. W., C. D. McPherson, J. H. Newman, et al. An imbalance between the excretion of thromboxane and prostacyclin metabolites in pulmonary hypertension. New Engl J Med 327: 70-5, 1992

Clapp, L. H., P. Finney, S. Turcato, et al. Differential effects of stable prostacyclin analogs on smooth muscle proliferation and cyclic AMP generation in human pulmonary artery (see comment). Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 26: 194-201, 2002

D'Alonzo, G. E., R. J. Barst, S. M. Ayres, et al. Survival in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Ann Intern Med 115: 343-55, 1991

Davis, L. L., B. P. deBoisblanc, C. E. Glynn, et al. Effect of prostacyclin on microvascular pressures in a patient with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Chest 108: 1754-6, 1754

de la Mata, J., M. A. Gomez-Sanchez, M. Aranzana, et al. Long-term iloprost infusion therapy for severe pulmonary hypertension in patients with connective tissue diseases. Arthritis Rheum 37: 1528-33, 1994

Dusting, G. J., S. Moncada and J. R. Vane. Prostaglandins, their intermediates and precursors: cardiovascular actions and regulatory roles in normal and abnormal circulatory systems. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 21: 405-30, 1979

Eronen, M., M. Pohjavuori, S. Andersson, et al. Prostacyclin treatment for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Pediatr Cardiol 18: 3-7., 1997

Farber, H. W., K. K. Graven, G. Kokolski, et al. Pulmonary edema during acute infusion of epoprostenol in a patient with pulmonary hypertension and limited scleroderma. J Rheumatol 26: 1195-6, 1999

Galie, N., M. Humbert, J. L. Vachiery, et al. Effects of beraprost sodium, an oral prostacyclin analogue, in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 39: 1496-502., 2002

Galie, N., W. Seeger, R. Naeije, et al. Comparative analysis of clinical trials and evidence-based treatment algorithm in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 43: 16, 2004

Geraci, M. W., B. Gao, D. C. Shepherd, et al. Pulmonary prostacyclin synthase overexpression in transgenic mice protects against development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. J Clin Invest 103: 1509-15., 1999

Ghofrani, H. A., G. Friese, T. Discher, et al. Inhaled iloprost is a potent acute pulmonary vasodilator in HIV-related severe pulmonary hypertension. Eur Respir J 23: 321-6, 2004

Gomez-Sanchez, M. A., C. S. de la Calzada, C. Gomez Pajuelo, et al. Different hemodynamic responses between acute and chronic infusion of iloprost (prostacyclin-stable analogue) in severe pulmonary hypertension. Am Rev Respir Dis 144: 1404-5, 1991

Higenbottam, T., A. Y. Butt, A. McMahon, et al. Long-term intravenous prostaglandin (epoprostenol or iloprost) for treatment of severe pulmonary hypertension. Heart 80: 151-5, 1998

Higenbottam, T., D. Wheeldon, F. Wells, et al. Long-term treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension with continuous intravenous epoprostenol (prostacyclin). Lancet 1: 1046-7, 1984

Higenbottam, T. W., A. Y. Butt, A. T. Dinh-Xaun, et al. Treatment of pulmonary hypertension with the continuous infusion of a prostacyclin analogue, iloprost. Heart 79: 175-9., 1998

Hoeper, M. M., M. Schwarze, S. Ehlerding, et al. Long-term treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension with aerosolized iloprost, a prostacyclin analogue. N Engl J Med 342: 1866-70, 2000

Hoeper, M. M., E. Spiekerkoetter, V. Westerkamp, et al. Intravenous iloprost for treatment failure of aerosolised iloprost in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Eur Respir J 20: 339-43., 2002

Humbert, M., S. Maitre, F. Capron, et al. Pulmonary edema complicating continuous intravenous prostacyclin in pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 157: 1681-5, 1998

Humbert, M., O. Sanchez, M. Fartoukh, et al. Short-term and long-term epoprostenol (prostacyclin) therapy in pulmonary hypertension secondary to connective tissue diseases: results of a pilot study. Eur Respir J 13: 1351-6, 1999

Ivy, D. D., A. Doran, L. Claussen, et al. Weaning and discontinuation of epoprostenol in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension receiving concomitant bosentan. Am J Cardiol 93: 943-6, 2004

Jones, D. K., T. W. Higenbottam and J. Wallwork. Treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension intravenous epoprostenol (prostacyclin). Br Heart J 57: 270-8, 1987

Kim, N. H., R. N. Channick and L. J. Rubin. Successful withdrawal of long-term epoprostenol therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension. Chest 124: 1612-5, 2003

Krause, W. and T. Krais. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the prostacyclin analogue iloprost in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 30: 61-8., 1986

Krowka, M. J., R. P. Frantz, M. D. McGoon, et al. Improvement in pulmonary hemodynamics during intravenous epoprostenol (prostacyclin): A study of 15 patients with moderate to severe portopulmonary hypertension. Hepatology 30: 641-8., 1999

Kuhn, K. P., D. W. Byrne, P. G. Arbogast, et al. Outcome in 91 consecutive patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension receiving epoprostenol. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167: 580-6, 2003

Kuhn, K. P., N. E. Wickersham, I. M. Robbins, et al. Acute effects of sildenafil in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension receiving epoprostenol. Exp Lung Res 30: 135-45, 2004

Kuo, P. C., L. B. Johnson, J. S. Plotkin, et al. Continuous intravenous infusion of epoprostenol for the treatment of portopulmonary hypertension. Transplantation 63: 604-6., 1997

Langleben, D., B. W. Christman, R. J. Barst, et al. Effects of the thromboxane synthetase inhibitor and receptor antagonist terbogrel in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Am Heart J 143: e4, 2002

Lock, J. E., P. M. Olley, F. Coceani, et al. Use of prostacyclin in persistent fetal circulation. Lancet 1: 23, 1979

Long, W. A. and L. J. Rubin. Prostacyclin and PGE1 treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Am Rev Respir Dis 136: 773-6, 1987

Machherndl, S., M. Kneussl, H. Baumgartner, et al. Long-term treatment of pulmonary hypertension with aerosolized iloprost. Eur Respir J 17: 8-13, 2001

McLaughlin, V. V., D. E. Genthner, M. M. Panella, et al. Reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance with long-term epoprostenol (prostacyclin) therapy in primary pulmonary hypertension. New Engl J Med 338: 273-7, 1998

McLaughlin, V. V., A. Shillington and S. Rich. Survival in primary pulmonary hypertension: the impact of epoprostenol therapy. Circulation 106: 1477-82., 2002

Moncada, S., R. Gryglewski, S. Bunting, et al. An enzyme isolated from arteries transforms prostaglandin endoperoxides to an unstable substance that inhibits platelet aggregation. Nature 263: 663-5, 1976

Moncada, S. and J. R. Vane. Arachidonic acid metabolites and the interactions between platelets and blood-vessel walls. New England Journal of Medicine 300: 1142-7, 1979

Morassut, P. A., V. M. Walley and C. D. Smith. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and the CREST variant of scleroderma. Can J Cardiol 8: 1055-8, 1992

Naeye, R. L. Pulmonary vascular lesions in systemic sclerosis. Dis Chest 44: 374-80, 1963

Nagaya, N., N. Sasaki, M. Ando, et al. Prostacyclin therapy before pulmonary thromboendarterectomy in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Chest 123: 338-43., 2003

Nunes, H., M. Humbert, O. Sitbon, et al. Prognostic factors for survival in human immunodeficiency virus-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167: 1433-9., 2003

Olschewski, H., H. A. Ghofrani, T. Schmehl, et al. Inhaled iloprost to treat severe pulmonary hypertension. An uncontrolled trial. German PPH Study Group. Ann Intern Med 132: 435-43., 2000

Olschewski, H., H. A. Ghofrani, D. Walmrath, et al. Inhaled prostacyclin and iloprost in severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to lung fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 160: 600-7., 1999

Olschewski, H., G. Simonneau, N. Galie, et al. Inhaled iloprost for severe pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med 347: 322-9., 2002

Olschewski, H., D. Walmrath, R. Schermuly, et al. Aerosolized prostacyclin and iloprost in severe pulmonary hypertension. Ann Intern Med 124: 820-4, 1996

Palmer, S. M., L. J. Robinson, A. Wang, et al. Massive pulmonary edema and death after prostacyclin infusion in a patient with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Chest 113: 237-40, 1998

Petitpretz, P., F. Brenot, R. Azarian, et al. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Comparison with primary pulmonary hypertension. Circulation 89: 2722-7, 1994

Rich, S. and V. V. McLaughlin. The effects of chronic prostacyclin therapy on cardiac output and symptoms in primary pulmonary hypertension (see comment). J Am Coll Cardiol 34: 1184-7, 1999

Robbins, I. M., S. P. Gaine, R. Schilz, et al. Epoprostenol for treatment of pulmonary hypertension in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Chest 117: 14-8, 2000

Rosenzweig, E. B., D. Kerstein and R. J. Barst. Long-term prostacyclin for pulmonary hypertension with associated congenital heart defects. Circulation 99: 1858-65., 1999

Rubin, L. J., J. Mendoza, M. Hood, et al. Treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension with continuous intravenous prostacyclin (epoprostenol). Results of a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 112: 485-91, 1990

Shapiro, S. M., R. J. Oudiz, T. Cao, et al. Primary pulmonary hypertension: improved long-term effects and survival with continuous intravenous epoprostenol infusion. J Am Coll Cardiol 30: 343-9, 1997

Simonneau, G., R. J. Barst, N. Galie, et al. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of treprostinil, a prostacyclin analogue, in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165: 800-4., 2002

Sitbon, O., M. Humbert, H. Nunes, et al. Long-term intravenous epoprostenol infusion in primary pulmonary hypertension: prognostic factors and survival. J Am Coll Cardiol 40: 780-8., 2002

Stiebellehner, L., V. Petkov, K. Vonbank, et al. Long-term treatment with oral sildenafil in addition to continuous IV epoprostenol in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Chest 123: 1293-5., 2003

Strange, C., M. Bolster, J. Mazur, et al. Hemodynamic effects of epoprostenol in patients with systemic sclerosis and pulmonary hypertension. Chest 118: 1077-82, 2000

Stricker, H., G. Domenighetti, G. Fiori, et al. Sustained improvement of performance and haemodynamics with long-term aerosolised prostacyclin therapy in severe pulmonary hypertension. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 129: 923-7., 1999

Tuder, R. M., C. D. Cool, M. W. Geraci, et al. Prostacyclin synthase expression is decreased in lungs from patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159: 1925-32., 1999

Vachiery, J. L., N. Hill, D. Zwicke, et al. Transitioning from i.v. epoprostenol to subcutaneous treprostinil in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Chest 121: 1561-5, 1561

Von Euler, U. S. On the specific vasodilating and plain muscle stimulating substance from accessory genital glands in man and certain animals (prostaglandin and vesiglandin). J Physiol (Lond) 88: 213-34, 1936

Walmrath, D., R. Schermuly, J. Pilch, et al. Effects of inhaled versus intravenous vasodilators in experimental pulmonary hypertension. Eur Respir J 10: 1084-92, 1997

Walmrath, D., T. Schneider, J. Pilch, et al. Aerosolised prostacyclin in adult respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet 342: 961-2, 1993



Watkins, W. D., M. B. Peterson, R. K. Crone, et al. Prostacyclin and prostaglandin E1 for severe idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension. Lancet 1: 17, 1980



Wax, D., R. Garofano and R. J. Barst. Effects of long-term infusion of prostacyclin on exercise performance in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Chest 116: 914-20, 1999



Wilkens, H., A. Guth, J. Konig, et al. Effect of inhaled iloprost plus oral sildenafil in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Circulation 104: 1218-22., 2001



Yousem, S. A. The pulmonary pathologic manifestations of the CREST syndrome. Hum Pathol 21: 467-74, 1990